SharePoint is very extensible and customizable, and this is really true. For example, let’s take a look at the search functionality in SharePoint. By default only Office documents (which are in a document library for example) are indexed by the Indexing Service so they can be found by using the search functionality of SharePoint.
The complete installation on a single server using non-domain accounts. The recommendation for a single server build of SharePoint 2010 is to use the Stand Alone installation giving you SQL express and a default configuration.